Musk deer are found in the various protected area located in the higher elevation. Musk deer are found in 9 protected areas of Nepal viz. Declared as a protected area in 1910, it was later declared a national park in 1981. , pindrow fir (Also known as West Himalayan Fir), The sanctuary is reputed to have many high value medicinal and aromatic plant species, of which 22 species are rare and endangered. , Musk will mark their territory warning trespassing deers not to cross the boundary. Uttarakhand is home to rare species of plants and animals, many of which are protected by sanctuaries and reserves. 1–8. Consequently, poaching, habitat destruction, … Musk deer potential distribution area inside and outside the protected areas of Nepal. The Indian musk deer bears the tendency to be more secretive and they are easily seen either … Musk Deer Farm, Mandal Called kastura in Hindi, the musk deer can be identified by its thick, bristly brown coat, speckled with white on the flanks, the white stockings and a bare tail, which nestles in thick rump hair. , The nearest airport is at Jolly Grant Airport at Dehradun at a distance of 227 km (141 mi) from Chopta, the entry point to the sanctuary. The Himalayan musk deer is not only the most primitive, but also the smallest ungulate living above the altitude of 2500m [1,3,5,6]. Visiting season is from April to June and again from September to November. Everest) National Park (SNP) was established in 1976 and covered 1148 km2 of the Himalayan ecological zone in the Khumbu region of Nepal. The Temple Committee maintains Dharamshalas (rest houses or inns) for use by pilgrims and tourists at Trijuginarayan, Dougalbitta, Mandal, Gaurikund and Kedarnath.  The musk deers are also protected under the National Parks which accounts for approximately 13% of the Siberian Musk Deer population. Deer musk has been a key constituent in many perfumes since its discovery, being held to give a perfume long-lasting power as a fixative. Known as ‘The Green Paradise of India’, Askot Musk Deer Sanctuary is secured amidst the snow capped peak in the majestic Kumaon Himalayas at a range of 5412 feet. Siberia. It was changed to a sanctuary on 21 January 1972, and has been designated a "Habitat/Species Management Area" by the IUCN. The questionnaire survey was applied from October to November 2018. It has large ears, a very short tail, no antlers, and the male has long upper canine teeth that project downward from the mouth as tusks. It is expected that the population will be reduced to at least 30% over the next three generations. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard the habitats of conservation reliant species. It is found, not only in Uttarakhand in the Himalayan belt up to lowest elevation of 2,500 m (8,200 ft) (within a restricted zone), but also in some parts of the Himalayan belt starting from Northern India in Jammu and Kashmir and Sikkim, and in Bhutan, Nepal and China (southwest Xizang) with small numbers reported in China. The park spreading over 10,000 square km in five districts of Gilgit Baltistan and according to the locals it is a natural habitat for different species of wild animals including some rare species of birds. Musk Deer are differentiated as a subfamily of the Cervidae and bear four sub-species called Moschus chrysogaster (Himalayan Musk Deer), Moschus berezovskii (Dwarf Musk Deer), Moschus moschiferus (Siberian Musk Deer) and Moschus fuscus (Black Musk Deer). They are poached for its pod, which is valued at US$45,000 (Indian Rs 2 million) per 25 kg (55 lb) that is used in cosmetics. It is largely nocturnal, and migrates only over short distances.  These tusks are used to compete with other males and attract females. , Other scientific activities centered around the sanctuary have been: the high-altitude botanical field station established at Tungnath (3,500 m or 11,500 ft) by the Garhwal University; further ecological studies of the ungulates; WWF on ecology of the Himalayan musk deer and other ungulates near Tungnath, together with surveys of the mammalian fauna and avifauna; and fish fauna studies in the Mandakini River.. For example, in …  It is host to temperate forests in the middle altitudes; higher elevations are dotted by coniferous, sub-alpine and alpine forests, and further up by alpine grasslands and high-altitude Bugyals. The primates recorded are rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and common langur (Presbytis entellus).  IUCN has reported that "From 44.4% to 48.8% of the sanctuary is forested, 7.7% comprises alpine meadows and scrub, 42.1% is rocky or under permanent snow and 1.5% represents formerly forested areas that have been degraded. Its meat is also consumed as a delicacy. Musk deer occupy the middle to the higher mountain regions, which cover 12 protected areas of Nepal (6 national parks, 5 conservation areas, 1 hunting reserve). Despite being commonly called deer, they are not true deer belonging to the family Cervidae. Males grow the teeth for display instead of antlers.. Ancistrodon himalayanus) (common) and Boulenger's keelback (Hebius parallelum). They said a joint team composed of the army and locals had … Tusks that are longer and stronger create a more intimidating stance and become more attractive to females as the offspring of that male are likely to become healthier. Declining population (over 40% in 21 years) of this species and large scale poaching for profit, dictated the decision to declare it as an endangered animal (EN) in 1973 (Halloway, 1973) and the species was listed vulnerable in the red data book of IUCN in 1974. Musk deer can refer to any one, or all seven, of the species that make up Moschus, the only extant genus of the family Moschidae. Located in the Himalayan Highlands with an elevation ranging from 1,160 m (3,810 ft) (near Phata) to the Chaukhamba peak at 7,068 m (23,189 ft), it was a notified reserve forest between 1916 and 1920. Der Name des Parks bezeichnet jedoch keinen Vogelpark, wie es die naheliegende Übersetzung von Bird …  Generally in the north-south direction river valleys are formed by the Mandakini, Kali, Biera, Balasuti and Menan rivers flowing through the sanctuary. All trades regarding musk are subject to strict regulation to avoid exploitation of the survival of the deer. Kaziranga - Musk deer. Its alternate name comes from its primary purpose of protecting the endangered Himalayan musk deer. A distinct subspecies roams the island of Sakhalin. It lies within the larger Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows of alpine ecoregion of India, Nepal and Tibet, The sanctuary is at its higher altitudes is characterised by glaciers which through glacial action over centuries have created deep "v" shaped valleys. Chitwan National Park in the Inner Terai region is one of the best protected areas in Nepal and provides habitat for such creatures as the one-horned rhinoceros, royal Bengal tiger, sloth bear, and gaur, as well as several The Government of Nepal protected musk deer as and Balitora brucei. Generally, the musk deer population has been declining due to over-hunting for musk and to loss of habitats. Auf der Enhanced CD Zusatzmaterial und Internet-Link und, das ist der Vermarktung dann doch etwas zu viel: Aufforderung dem Fan-Club beizutreten. Visitors are mostly Indian nationals on pilgrimage to various temples, though a few international tourists also visit the area. The white-bellied musk deer is protected by law in Bhutan, Nepal, and India. Lion (Panthera leo persica) is an important protected animal in wildlife of India. Out of 111 respondents, 77% reported that the primary objective for poacher kills to the musk deer was musk pod, followed by skin (15%) and meat (8%). The dense forests, hills and mountains of Sikkim are home to a huge variety of animal species from musk deer and red panda , to bharal or blue sheep ,the Himalayan black bear and the exclusive snow leopard. It prefers altitudes of more than 2600 m. Adults are small, weighing 7–17 kg. Park protection Poaching of Musk Deer for musk pod, Himalayan Black Bear for bile, and Himalayan Tahr, Danphe and Monal for meat are the main threats in Langtang National Park. The geological formation in the catchment is made up of "Central Crystallines" that are metamorphic rocks such as gneisses, granites and schists. Siberian musk deer preputial gland secretions are constituted of free fatty acids and phenols (10%), waxes (38%) and steroids. The management of the wildlife sanctuary is done by the Uttarakhand Forest department. Answer. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2011.04.018. IN THE MUSK DEER NATIONAL PARK GURAIZ, AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR, PAKISTAN B. D. Qureshi, M. Anwar, I. Hussain and M. A. Beg Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan Corresponding Author e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ABSTRACT In Pakistan, Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) inhabits sub-alpine scrub, and mixed …  At Tungnath, two sedges, Carex lacta and C. munda, have been reported which had previously only been reported in the far west region of Nepal. Important bird species reported are Himalayan monal (Lophophorus impejanus) (the state bird of Uttarakhand), Snow Partridge (Lerwa lerwa), kalij pheasant (lophura leucomelanos hamiltonii), koklass pheasant (Pucrasia macrolopha), West Himalayan bush warbler (Locustella kashmirensis), little pied flycatcher (Ficedula westermanni), grey-cheeked warbler (Seicercus poliogenys) and Rusty-flanked treecreeper (Certhia nipalensis). In the Mandakini River, fishes recorded include Schizothorax sp., mahseer Tor tor, Labeo spp., Gara spp., Barilius spp., Nemacheilus sp. For nature lovers, the ride from Pithoragarh to Askot during spring is mesmerizing, filled … It is most common in the taiga of southern Siberia, but is also found in parts of Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, Manchuria and the Korean peninsula. The Siberian musk deer (Moschus moschiferus) is a musk deer found in the mountain forests of Northeast Asia. When marking their territories, musk deer gather fallen branches, tree trunks, as well as plant stems and place them in a circle. The approach to Kedarnath Temple is only through the sanctuary. Hunters catch and kill the deer using snares. National Highway NH 58 from Delhi passes through Chamoli via Meerut, Muzaffarnagar, Roorkee, Haridwar, Rishikesh, Devprayag, Srinagar, Rudraprayag, Okhimath; and by state highway to Chopta. The various places where Musk deer are found in India are, • Kedarnath Wild Life Sanctuary, located at Uttrakhand is the national sanctuary established primarily to protect musk deer.It is also named as "Kedarnath Musk deer Sanctuary". Some of them are Annapurna Conservation Area, Sagarmatha National Park, Langtang National Park, Kanchanjunga Conservation Area, and others. Single horned rhino (Rhinoceros unicornis) is an important protected animal in wildlife of India. Other temples, though not of matching importance, have strong legends related to the epic Mahabharata days. A series of laws and regulations have been launched and many natural reserves and national parks have been established as refuges for this animal, most of which, are within the musk deer's … Edit. Muskauer Park/Park Mużakowski – an outstanding example of a European park, a crafted ideal landscape, and a new approach to designing greenery in urbanized spaces – was included in the world heritage list according to the convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage on July 2, 2004. 3-Methylpentadecanone (muscone) was not identified among the secretion lipids.. The questionnaire survey was applied from October to November 2018. and Rhododendron (Rhododendron spp. • Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir • Kanchendzonga National Park, Sikkim. We studied anthropogenic pressure on the musk deer population in the Khaptad National Park, Nepal. Other ways the Siberian Musk Deer will mark its territory is by defecating in already marked territories or unclaimed territories.. The musk deers are also protected under the National Parks which accounts for approximately 13% of the Siberian Musk Deer population. Various animals can be found here like the leopard, the musk deer, the Himalayan Black Bear, … The number of visitors to the Kedarnath shrine, who passed through the sanctuary, was 5,57,923 in 2007 as against 87,629 in 1987, a quantum jump in 20 years. Siberian Musk deer have a preference for easily digestible nutritious foods. Only a few tens of grams can be extracted from an adult male. The musk deers are also protected under the National Parks which accounts for approximately 13% of the Siberian Musk Deer … Then the cycle of over-harvesting the deer's musk continued until the exploitation severely reduced the musk deer's population. Musk deer farms have been established in China, India and Nepal. New Delhi: There is only one musk deer alive in the zoos across India.The detail furnished by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and climate change (MoECC) in response to an RTI query shows that the sole surviving deer is in the Himalayan Nature Park, Kufri. During breeding season, male deer will grow tusks instead of antlers. The adult male has a gland under the abdominal skin that secretes musk. In Russia, the Siberian Musk Deer is protected as Very Rare under part 7.1 of the Law of the Mongolian Animal Kingdom (2000) and also under the 1995 Mongolian Hunting Law. The conservation project for protection of lion was started in the year 1972 in 'Gir National Park' in Junagadh in Gujarat. During the winter, 99% of musk deer's diet are lichens. After the 1980s, the production begins to steadily decline due to hunting for their musk glands. Musk deer (Moschus moschiferus): Reinvestigation of main lipid components from preputial gland secretion. To date, 15 mammal species and 150 bird species have been documented in the park, including Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus), brown bear (Ursus arctos), musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster), blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus), Himalayan monal (Lophophorus impejanus), Koklass (Pucrasia macrolopha) and Himalayan snowcock … The South West summer monsoon rains recorded is the mean annual precipitation of 3,093 mm (122 in). It has reportedly pharmaceutical properties also. A solitary shy animal, that lives in mountainous regions from Siberia to the Himalayas. It is most common in the taiga of southern Siberia, but is also found in parts of Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, Manchuria and the Korean peninsula . 6.5.1. , The male species of the endangered musk deer in the Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary carries the much valued pods musk pod (glands). , Siberia, North Mongolia, Russia, North China and Korea - M. m. moschiferus. Der Francis William Bird Park ist ein 89 Acres (36 ha) großer Park in Walpole im Bundesstaat Massachusetts der Vereinigten Staaten.Er wird von der Organisation The Trustees of Reservations verwaltet und ist tagsüber für die Öffentlichkeit kostenfrei zugänglich. , The most striking characteristics of the Siberian musk deer are its tusks and kangaroo-like face. The Himalayan musk deer ... there is an urgent need to give this species total protection in national parks and wildlife reserves in order to preserve genetic diversity and maintain essential ecological processes and life support systems. In addition, there is an urgent need to give this species total protection in national parks and wildlife reserves in order to preserve genetic diversity and doi:10.1016/j.als.2014.11.005, Wang, W., Zhou, R., He, L., Liu, S., Zhou, J., Qi, L., Li, L. and Hu, D. (2015) ‘The progress in nutrition research of musk deer: Implication for conservation’, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 172, pp. The rocky location provides crevices and crags for the musk deer to hide from many predators, such as lynx and wolverines. The musk deer family differs from cervids, or true deer, by lacking antlers and facial glands and by possessing only a single pair of teats, a gallbladder, a caudal gland, a pair of tusk-like teeth and—of particular economic importance to humans—a musk gland. Musk deer farming, therefore, has become one of the most appropriate ways to protect and utilize musk deer resources. Musk deers are among the premium animals, available only through purchasing diamonds with real money. The sanctuary is geographically situated in the Chamoli and Rudraprayag districts of Uttarakhand.  The animal is protected under the "Threatened Deer Programme" of the IUCN, with cooperation by the Government of India and World Wide Fund for Nature . The management of wildlife sanctuary focuses mainly on wildlife habitat improvement, grazing regulation, forest protection and conservation. This is highly prized as an aphrodisiac and perfume, which has led to large-scale … Once the male and the female deer have procreated, the females will become pregnant lasting over 6 months and can give birth to 1-3 offspring, usually between the months of May through June. National parks in Uttarakhand include the Jim Corbett National Park … Most Siberian musk deer are generally nocturnal inhabiting the mountainous taiga and found in shrub-covered slopes where foods are abundant. Through 1987, it had successfully reared nine deer. The musk deer is kept in Schedule 1 of the Wildlife Protection Act 1972. Linkin Park wissen sich zu inszenieren: cooles Artwork, auffällige Musikvideos (etwa das Anime zu Breaking the habit), schickes Booklet mit Lyrics, Linernotes, Fotos. Previous article in … , The sanctuary is reputed to be one of the world’s richest bio-reserves. Recorded reptile species are Himalayan pit viper (Gloydius himalayanus syn. The poachers are from outside the national park and the buffer zone but it is strongly believed that they can never approach these areas without the support of the local people. The poachers are from outside the national park and the buffer zone but it is strongly believed that they can never approach these areas without the support of the local people. National parks in India are IUCN category II protected areas. Wildlife Division. In Russia, the Siberian Musk Deer is protected as Very Rare under part 7.1 of the Law of the Mongolian Animal Kingdom (2000) and also under the 1995 Mongolian Hunting Law. • Carnivores are: Indian jackal (Canis aureus indicus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), Himalayan black bear (Selenarctos thibetanus laniger) (V), yellow-throated marten (Martes flavigula), leopard cat (Felis bengalensis), Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) (V) and snow leopard (Uncia uncia). The conservation … Musk deer are found in the various protected area located in the higher elevation. It is hunted for its musk gland, which fetches prices as high as $45,000 per kilogram. The Kashmir musk deer (Moschus cupreus) is an endangered species of musk deer native to Afghanistan, India, and Pakistan.Recent studies have shown that the species is also native to western Nepal. … ", The sanctuary takes its name from the famous Hindu temple of Kedarnath which is just outside its northern border. Its inclusion in the list is a confirmation of outstanding interest … The headquarter of Kedarnath Wildlife Division is located at Gopeshwar, District Chamoli. At the international level, trading musk is controlled through CITES. Available at: "Fanged deer not extinct, still roaming the mountains of Afghanistan", "Moschus moschiferus (Siberian musk deer)", "Inside the cloning factory that creates 500 new animals a day", https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/fanged-deer-not-extinct-still-roaming-mountains-afghanistan-180953228/, "Species profile: Moschus moschiferus, Siberian musk deer", "Species profile: Siberian Musk Deer - Moschus moschiferus", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Siberian_musk_deer&oldid=999497369, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Russian Federation, Sakhalin population: 600-500, Russian Federation, the Eastern Siberian population: 27,000-30,000, Russian Federation, Far Eastern population: 150,000, Democratic People's Republic of Korea: unknown, This page was last edited on 10 January 2021, at 13:55. The lowest winter temperature recorded in the first half of January is −10 °C (14 °F), when heavy snowfall is received in the upper region. Situated in the Himalayas, the park has rocks as well as steep mountains.  Since 1972, the area of the park has expanded from 967–975 ha (2,390–2,409 acres). in china. For about three months, following heavy snowfall in December, the sanctuary is snow-covered.  Lakes, waterfall and high-rise mountain peaks abound in this forest belt, as do a number of old Hindu pilgrimage sites - Madhyamaheshwar, Tungnath, Rudranath, Kedarnath, Triyuginarayan and Kalpeshwar all are located within or on the periphery of the sanctuary. Conservation works get further delayed as sanctuaries receive money towards the end of the … Management Plan for Sagarmatha National Park and its Buffer Zone 2016-2020 Musk deer is commonly found in SNP between 2,500 − 4,000 m where the area is covered by Birch (Betula utilis), Fir (Abies spp.) Musk deer have a preference for easily digestible nutritious foods that are both rich in protein and low in fibre. Further, there are reports of the finding of the musk deer outside the protected area of Nepal. The decline of the Siberian Musk Deer's population began in China where most of the deer population was abundant. The Divisional Forest Officer(DFO) Kedarnath Wildlife Division is responsible for scientific management of the wildlife sanctuary as per the approved management plan. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) has categorized Musk Deer as Endangered species and their population is found to be decreasing year by year since they are being poached for their musk. ). National Park, Rara National Park, Khaptad National Park, and Makalu Barun National Park . Summer temperature recorded is 25 °C (77 °F), the highest in May or June; a mild and pleasant condition. In India, large population of musk deer can be found in well-secured protected areas and its population is unknown. While placing the various branches around the circle, the deer will often do an olfactory examination and turn the back of its body towards the marked territories. Few of the endangered species included marmot, snow leopard, markhor, ibex, blue sheep, brown bear, musk deer and snow wolf. But the funds are meant for the protection and conservation of the entire wildlife in the habitat, and not for musk deer alone. Their small shape allows them to hide from predators through tiny openings in the rocky terrain and also allow them to run exceptionally fast from their predators. 200million cm3 of China's forest recourses were cut down in the past 25 years in order to harvest the timber stock in trade for commerce. • Ungulates are Indian boar (Sus scrofa cristatus), Himalayan musk deer (Moschus leucogaster), and Indian muntjac.  The sanctuary includes a breeding center at Kharchula Kharak, both to help advance understanding of the animal's conservation requirements and to breed it in captivity for reintroduction to the wild. Yang, Q., Meng, X., Xia, L. and Feng, Z. Rishikesh is the nearest rail head at a distance of 212 km (132 mi) from Chopta. The major part of the killing tools represented … Achievements in the Life Sciences, 8(1), 65–71. The Siberian musk deer is considered vulnerable, but is slowly declining to endangerment. Qi, W.-H., Li, J., Zhang, X.-Y., Wang, Z.-K., Li, X.-X., Yang, C.-Z., Fu, W. and Yue, B.-S. (2011) ‘The reproductive performance of female forest musk deer () in captivity’, Theriogenology, 76(5), pp. Research program of musk deer ecology in the Sikhote-Alin region. The Siberian musk deer ( Moschus moschiferus) is a musk deer found in the mountain forests of Northeast Asia. Some of them are Annapurna Conservation Area , Sagarmatha National Park , Langtang National Park , Kanchanjunga Conservation Area , and others.  Visitors to these temples have occasionally been attacked by wildlife. Furthermore, the Chinese government has also established many national and provincial nature reserves as wildlife refuges, most of which are established within musk deer range and have the potential to improve the protection of musk deer in China. , Chaukhamba peak, northern boundary of sanctuary, Kala, C.P. India's first national park was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park, now known as Jim Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand. In Russia, the Siberian Musk Deer is protected as Very Rare under part 7.1 of the Law of the Mongolian Animal Kingdom (2000) and also under the 1995 Mongolian Hunting Law. 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( common ) and common langur ( Presbytis entellus ) the leopard, the production begins to decline... Mm ( 122 in ) acres ) of sanctuary, Kala, C.P dates to the,! 5Β,3Α,17Α-Dihydroxyandrostane can be extracted from an adult male has a gland under the abdominal skin secretes. Park, Kanchanjunga conservation area, and India in ) earlier, of! Protecting the endangered Himalayan musk deer are found in the mountain forests of Asia! 80 % of the Siberian musk deer to hide from many predators such! Compete with other males and attract females leopard, the sanctuary has a gland under the parks... Δ4-3Α-Hydroxy-17-Ketoandrostene, 5β,3α-hydroxy-17-ketoandrostane, 5α,3β,17α-dihydroxyandrostane, 5β,3α,17β-dihydroxyandrostane and 5β,3α,17α-dihydroxyandrostane can be extracted from an male! The 8th century 's keelback ( Hebius parallelum ), Uttarakhand … the musk deer,! Himalayan musk deer 10 – 14 years with wildlife protection today ancistrodon himalayanus ) ( common and! Sanctuary is done by the IUCN applied from October to November 2018 of this species was accounted for 80 of.